Working Papers

In 2007 the division launches a working papers series. It is intended to convey the preliminary results of our ongoing research and stimulate a scientific dialogue about the findings.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the authors. We welcome feedback from readers and encourage you to convey your comments and criticisms directly to the authors.

10 – Success factors of media product brands

No. 10: Sommer, von Rimscha, Verhoeven, Krebs, & Siegert (2016): Success factors of media product brands. Examining the building blocks for success across different media types.

Christoph SommerBjornvon RimschaMarcel VerhoevenIsabelle KrebsGabriele Siegert

IKMZ - University of Zurich

Media companies and their managers have to develop and adapt products and services as well as processes and business models to exploit opportunities in the digital era. In doing so, knowledge of success factors is crucial.

Success factor research in the media is a fairly broad and fragmented field. Studies till date have focused on single types of media; however, this technology-based distinction is no longer valid. It has been shown that products and services converge as well as their development and production processes. Therefore, the present study aims to synthesize the findings from different media contexts.

On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with media professionals from Austria, Germany and Switzerland, ten building blocks of media success are suggested: content, design, environmental orientation, internal processes, organizational aspects, leadership, human resources, marketing, distribution, and external evaluation. The findings support the transferability of success factors on an abstract level and their adaptability for different contexts. They function as hygiene factors representing industry standards and constraints to failure. This study concludes with presenting the implications for media management research and media practice.

Working Paper: Success factors of media product brands

09 – Functional values and brand personality

No. 9: Matthias A. Gerth, Loris Russi, Gabriele Siegert: Functional Values and Brand Personality: The Perception of Consumers and Media Professionals in Six European Countries

Matthias Gerth, Loris Russi, Gabriele Siegert,
IKMZ - University of Zurich

The process of consolidation and concentration in the business of traditional media in Western countries was fed by the global financial crisis during the last three years. We argue that after the global financial crisis, branding and differentiation from competitors is becoming even more important. Traditional media need more effort in managing their brands. Our leading research question is: “What functional values and personality do different media brands represent in the minds of media consumers and media professionals in different European countries?” Useful theoretical background to further develop this research problem can be found in literature on journalism cultures and the functions of the media, as well as brand management in the media industry. To answer our research question, we conducted a survey in six big metropolitan areas: Berlin (N=741), Copenhagen (N=749), London (N=740), Paris (N=741), Rome (N=738), and Zurich (N=748). We asked media consumers what purpose their favourite newspaper and favourite TV news programme serves (functional value) and what personality items best fit the image they have of their favourite media brand. The same questions were asked media managers and senior editors (N=58) in the respective areas. ANOVA tests reveal significant differences among all six areas. Our results show that considerably more than consumers, media professionals see their brands in the light of traditional functions of journalism. Moreover, we found some evidence that the perception of functional values and brand personality in the UK is different from all other countries.

Keywords: branding, media management, newspapers, television

Download

08 – Forecasting media market development

No. 8: M. Bjørn von Rimscha, Loris Russi, Gabriele Siegert: Forecasting media market development in Switzerland

Bjørn von Rimscha, Loris Russi, Gabriele Siegert,
IKMZ - University of Zurich

This paper gives an outlook about the development of the Swiss media industry in the coming years. The outlook is based on two cornerstones: the economic development as the basis of a media system within a market economy and the social function of media within modern democracies. A two-tier research design is used to forecast the present development. First, ARIMA forecasting of audience demand and advertising expenditures depict the economic development on the base of secondary data. Second, scenario analysis using focus groups of industry representatives are introduced to predict the economic development as well as the role of the media within society. The results from the ARIMA forecasting show a grim outlook for the press both with regard to audience and advertising demand. On the other hand demand for electronic media is stable or even growing in the case of internet use. Apart from broadcasting the industry representatives do not view regulation of media as a crucial factor of the industry development. But every focus group identified the funding and as such the economic base as a key dimension. As such the results from both analyses can be partly integrated with the ARIMA forecasts helping to assess the probability of the different scenarios depicted by the industry representatives. With regard to the functional role of the media within society all the representative point to the state and in particular the public broadcaster that should cater for the public value.

Keywords: media market, forecasting, time series, scenario analysis, Switzerland

07 – Comparing advertising markets

No. 7: Gabriele Siegert, Ulrike Mellmann, Loris Russi: Comparing advertising markets. Case studies of eight countries

Gabriele Siegert, Ulrike Mellmann, Loris Russi
IKMZ - University of Zurich

Environmental factors such as technological conditions, policy issues or general economic development affect the formation of media and advertising markets. In this study we concentrate on the advertising market and argue that the state and development of advertising formats reflect the differences of environmental conditions. Therefore, our comparative case study investigates the state and possible development of advertising across eight countries using a framework that allows systematizing and analyzing advertising formats, the I/P-matrix. The picture of the advertising markets is drawn from secondary data analysis of environmental conditions and interviews with experts. The patterns found divide at least seven of the eight countries into two quite homogeneous groups. Firstly, emerging ad markets display a euphoric assessment of the future development in particular regarding online advertising. Secondly, traditional ad markets are characterized by a limited evolution of new ad formats and a down-to-earth assessment of the future development.

Keywords:
advertising markets, comparative research, environmental condition, China, Germany, India, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA

06 – Crying in the Desert - Does US Federal Reserve Opinion Affect Media? The New Empirical Evidence

No. 6: Sulkhan Metreveli: Crying in the Desert - Does US Federal Reserve Opinion Affect Media? The New Empirical Evidence

Sulkhan Metreveli
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

The present paper analyses the effects of mediatisation on formal organizational communication. Research considers US Federal Reserve to be on of most influential institutions worldwide. Based on the new empirical evidence research provides the key finding that mediatisation effects diminish the importance of US Federal reserve announcements for the media outlets.

Keywords:
US Federal Reserve, organizational communication, framing, mediatisation

05 – Packaging a movie project - a resource based perspective

No. 5: M. Bjørn von Rimscha: Packaging a movie project - a resource based perspective

M. Bjørn von Rimscha
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

In this paper the development package of a proposed movie is described as a bundle of resources that determine the value of the package and thus the decision whether the movie is produced or not. Using the characteristics laid down in the resource based view, content, personnel and funding are identified as core resources in movie development. The RBV is adapted to analyze individual producers with their projects rather than firms. A superior set of resources is assumed to guarantee approval for a given project (green light). In an extensive literature review different options are discussed how movie producers can secure each of these core resources. It is shown that strategies to secure the core resources are limited since, they are interrelated. In concluding section an outlook is provided how the focus on the producer rather than a single project emphasizes the aspect of sustainable competitive advantage and how strategies of movie producers could be analyzed.

Keywords:
Movie production, RBV, Resource securisation, Resource management

This working paper is no longer available for download but has been published here:
von Rimscha, M.B. (2009). Packaging a movie project - a resource based perspective. In A. Albarran, P. Faustino, R. Santos (eds.), The media as a driver of the information society (S. 491- 522). Lisbon: MediaXXI/Formalpress.

04 – Innovation in television entertainment production

No. 4: Kerstin Fröhlich: Innovation in television entertainment production. A theoretical model and its application to the German TV market

Kerstin Fröhlich
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

The research presented in this paper is part of a larger project comparing the systems of television entertainment production in Germany and the UK. This paper focuses on the following research questions: What is the nature of the relationship between broadcasters and production companies? What are the dominant institutions in this relationship? What is the impact of these institutions on innovativeness? Agency-Theory is used as the theoretical approach to describe the relationship and the empirical findings are bases on 16 semi-structured interviews with television executives from German broadcasters and production companies.

Keywords:
television, production process, agency-theory, innovation, formats

03 – Der Vergleich europäischer Medienproduktionssysteme

No. 3: Kerstin Fröhlich: Der Vergleich europäischer Medienproduktionssysteme

Kerstin Fröhlich
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

Der Beitrag prüft welches Potential ökonomische Ansätze zu nationalen Produktions- und Innovationssystemen für die komparative medienökonomische Forschung haben und inwiefern sie zum Vergleich nationaler Medienproduktionssysteme herangezogen werden können. Dabei werden die bestehenden Erkenntnisse der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft integrativ mit den ökonomischen Modellen verknüpft werden und zu einem Modell kombiniert. Es werden die Charakteristika medialer Produktion diskutiert und die Anforderungen an ein Modell zum Vergleich von nationalen Medienproduktionssystemen aufgezeigt. Sowie die Ansätze zur Analyse nationaler Produktionssysteme beschrieben und deren Vor- und Nachteile für den Vergleich europäischer Medienproduktionssysteme herausgearbeitet. Auf dieser Basis wird in einem weiteren Arbeitsschritt ein Modell entwickelt, das die Analyse und den Vergleich nationaler Medienproduktionssysteme ermöglicht.

Keywords:
Medienproduktion, komparative Forschung, Innovationssysteme

Diese Arbeitspapier ist nicht länger verfügbar, da es hier publiziert wurde: Fröhlich, K. (2007). Der Vergleich europäischer Medienproduktionssysteme. In P. Klimsa & S. Vogt (Hg.), Europäische Tagung zur Medienproduktion. Technische Universität Ilmenau, 26. Januar 2007 (S. 57-76). Ilmenau: Universitäts-Verlag Ilmenau.

02 – Organizing Newspapers as Knowledge-Intensive Firms

No. 2: Karin Pühringer: Organizing newspapers as knowledge-intensive firms

Karin Pühringer
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

Today's working society is heavily bounded by knowledge and communication intense business services. Therefore, knowledge-based resources have become paramount in the quest for competitiveness comparative to other resources such as capital or natural resources (Storey, 2005), or you might even argue knowledge-based resources have replaced them. Knowledge-Intensive Firms (KIFs) gain competitive advantage from the human and social capital which make up their unique trading assets (Swart and Kinnie, 2003, p. 60). The characteristics asserted for knowledge-intensive firms in general are evidently assignable to newspaper companies or the newsroom itself.

Keywords:
Newspaper, Knowledge, Organizational loyalty, Identification, Newsroom management

01 – Placements in deutschen Spielfilmen

No. 1: M. Bjørn von Rimscha: Placements in deutschen Spielfilmen - Gut durchdacht oder einfach gemacht?

M. Bjørn von Rimscha
IKMZ - Universität Zürich

Abstract

Der Beitrag befasst sich mit Placements in deutschen Spielfilmen und untersucht die Frage, inwieweit Spielfilme als Werbeträger mit planbaren Werbeträgereigenschaften und Zielgruppen genutzt werden. Dazu werden die Zielgruppen von Filmen mit den Zielgruppen der jeweils platzierten Marken verglichen, um so eine Messgröße für den Grad der Zielgruppenorientierung zu bestimmen. Die vorgestellte Analyse von Placements in deutschen Spielfilmen der Jahre 2004 und 2005 ergibt eine geringe Kongruenz der Zielgruppen. Als Erklärungsansätze für dieses scheinbar unstrategische Vorgehen werden die Orientierung an Teilzielgruppen, Spezifika des deutschen Markts und die Fokussierung auf alternative Adressaten der Placements diskutiert.

Keywords:
Werbung, Spielfilmproduktion, Placement, Zielgruppen, Unterhaltung