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BSc 180 Compulsory Modules, Semester 3-6

Physics III (PHY131)

Theory of relativity

  • Lorentztransformation
  • relativistic energy-momentum relation
  • 4-vectors
  • general relativity

Laws of thermal radiation:

  • Radiation of black bodies
  • Particle/wave dualism
  • Photon-electrical effect
  • Compton effect
  • Bending of electrons
  • Pair production, annihilation

Foundations in quantum mechanics:

  • de Broglie waves, Heisenberg uncertainty principles, Schrödinger equations, expected values, Eigenvalues, Eigenfunctions
  • simple potential wells, tunnel effects


Physics IV (PHY141)

  • Hydrogen atom
  • Angular momentum and magnetic moments, fine structure, Zeeman effect
  • Spin, fermions and bosons
  • Multiparticle wave functions, Pauli principle
  • Periodics system, covalent bonds
  • Laser
  • entanglement and Bell's inequality

Lab Course Physics III/IV PHY 132

In this advanced lab, we will perform some key experiments that have contributed to the development of modern quantum mechanics and which were covered theoretically in the Physics III and IV lectures. Quantum mechanics is of central importance in a wide variety of fields of physics: from atomic physics to condensed matter physics to astrophysics. The course includes writing of a report and completion of an error calculation

Data Analysis (PHY231)

  • Evaluation measurement results
  • Statistical distributions (binomial, Poissonian, exponential, chi2, Lorentz, 2-dimensional Gaussian distributions), correlations, folding
  • Polynomial adaptations and adaptations of non-linear functions to measurements
  • Least-square methods and maximum-likelihood methods
  • Exercises in Python


Data Analysis II (PHY241)

  • Monte Carlo methods
  • Selected topics related to data analysis
  • Project

Workshop (PHY113/PHY123)

  •  Basic training in precision mechanics
  •  Boring, Milling, Turning, Grinding, Soldering, Welding


Physics of Condensed Matter (PHY210)

  • Structure of crystals: periodicity, symmetry operations, Bravais lattice, simple crystal structures, bending by crystals
  • Bonds in crystals: noble gas bonds, ion bonds, etc.
  • Lattice oscillations: phonons
  • Specific heat: Einstein and Debye theories
  • Free electron gas: Energy levels and state density, specific heat, electrical conductivity, electron scattering mechanisms, heat conductivity of metals
  • Electron band models: quasi-free electrons in crystals, approximations solutions close to zone borders, classifications of solids based on conductivity, effective mass, electron holes

Selected topics in:

  • Semiconductors: conductivity in crystallographic defects, diffusion and recombination of charge carriers, rectifiers, quantum-hall effect
  • Optical properties: complex di-electrical constants, plasma oscillations, inter-band transitions, optoelectronic building elements
  • Magnetism: para- and diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism, spin-glas
  • Supraconductivity: Phenomenology, basics of the theories



Lab Course Condensed Matter (PHY 220)

In this advanced practical course some key experiments are performed which have contributed to the development of solid state physics and which have been treated theoretically in the lecture Solid State Physics.

Nuclear and Particle Physics (PHY211)

  • Particles and interactions in standard model, Feynman diagram
  • Natural entities
  • Rutherford scattering, differential cross sections, Mott scattering and form factor nuclear masses, nuclear models, radioactive decay, nuclear stability, elastic scattering on nucleons
  • Cross sections and relativistic kinematics
  • Deep elasticity scattering
  • Quark models of hadrons, Isospin
  • Particle production in e+e collisions
  • Quarkonia
  • Dirac equations and Feynman laws
  • Conservation laws
  • Weak interactions
  • Electro-weak interactions


Lab Course Particle Physics I (PHY 112)

In this lab an experiment is set up carried out to measure the lifetime of Positronium. Students will learn about particle detectors and readout electronics, fit the data that are collected using tools from the data analysis course.

Electronics (PHY250)

  •  Current, voltage, resistance
  •  Semiconductors
  •  Signals and systems
  •  Analog electrical networks
  •  Sensors
  •  Elements of digital electronics
  •  Signal transfer
  •  Data acquisition systems


Mathematical Methods in Physics I and II (PHY312 and PHY322)

Topics in function theory (3rd semester)

  • Complex numbers
  • Analytical functions
  • Line integrals
  • Residuals
  • Laurent series

Topics in higher analysis (3rd - 4th semester)

  • Series by orthogonal functions
  • Fourier series
  • Partial differential equations
  • Differential equations in mathematical Physics
  • Special functions: sphere surface areas, Bessel, Hermite, etc.
  • Fourier and Laplace transformations
  • Distributions
  • Green functions
  • Integral equations
  • Variation calculations

Topics in functional analysis (4th semester)

  • Banach and Hilbert spaces
  • Linear operations and Eigenvalue problems
  • Spectral representation by operators

Topics in group theory (4th semester)

  • Groups and their representations


Mechanics (PHY311)

 Kinematics and dynamics in systems with mass points

  •  Coordinate transformations and reference systems in motion
  •  Conservation laws
  •  Kepler problems
  •  Rigid bodies
  •  Lagrange formulations in mechanics, constraints
  •  Variation principles
  •  Invariance properties and conservation laws
  •  Hamilton equations of motion
  •  Canonical transformations and Hamilton-Jacob theories


Electrodynamics (PHY321)

  •  Electrostatics
  •  Magnetostatics
  •  Maxwell equations in vacuum and in macroscopic media
  •  Relativistic kinematics
  •  Producing electromagnetic waves, multipolar radiation
  •  Reflecting and breaking electromagnetic waves, metal optics
  •  Dispersion
  •  Diffractions theory

Quantum Mechanics I (PHY331)

  • Wave mechanics with applications in simple systems
  • Probability interpretations, measurements processes and indeterminate relations
  • Formal structures in quantum mechanics (various forms of laws of motion)
  • Spin and angular momentum
  • Time-independent problems and identical particles, application of atom and molecule constructions
  • Quantum information processing

Study guide

The  Guide to Physics Studies provides comprehensive information about the Bachelor's and Master's programs.